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With exponential population growth, developed 1st World and developing 3rd World agricultural systems must adapt to become sustainable. Sustainable agriculture addresses social, ecological and economic factors. Since climate, soil, and resource systems differ, sustainable agriculture would vary upon geographical region but include components of industrialized, traditional and state-of–the-art agricultural systems. Additionally, a stewardship and systems approach towards sustainable agriculture is beneficial to both 1st World and 3rd World countries.

Industrialized agricultural practices have produced harmful effects of soil erosion, loss of biodiversity and prime cropland, aquifer depletion, air pollution and health problems. In contrast to industrialized agriculture’s use of synthetic fertilizers, chemical pest control, wasteful water irrigation methods, monoculture and intensive tillage, sustainable agriculture would use polyculture, organic fertilizers, biological pest control, efficient irrigation (example–drip/boom system) and soil conservation methods. One picture of sustainable agriculture techniques is using no till/minimum tillage, and soil conservation methods of terracing, contour planting, strip/alley cropping and windbreaks. Other ways of reaching the goal of sustainable agriculture are decreasing the use of nonrenewable fossil fuels and increasing the use of renewable energy sources of wind, water and sun in developed 1st World countries. While developing 3rdWorld countries traditional agriculture methods of using low input polyculture is beneficial, they still suffer from inadequate food supplies and malnutrition. Focusing on food security with innovative ways to improve the macronutrient and micronutrient food quality would be helpful in these countries. In addition to the sustainable agricultural practices mentioned, improved crop supply with high yield plant strains (example–triticale), enhanced water management, integrated pest management, and better organization to distribute food where needed would be advantageous to these countries. Facing exponential population growth, both developed 1st World and developing 3rd World countries benefit from focusing on sustainable agriculture practices.