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Lymphatic and Immune System

  • Describe the function of the sentinel cells in cellular slime molds.
    • They circulate throughout the slug, engulfing bacteria and toxins which will sacrifice themselves so that the organism can live.
  • List three specific types of PAMP’s found on microbes.
    • Three specific types of PAMPs on microbes include the double stranded RNA that is made during virus replication, specific arrangements of carbohydrates, some lipids, and some proteins on bacterial or fungal cell walls.
  • Describe three ways that the evolution of receptors for specific antigens increased the effectiveness of the immune system.
    • Innate immunity allowed for organisms to recognize any types of microbial invaders. Adaptive immunity allowed for many diverse receptors on the surface of WBCs to be produced. They bind to antigens. This will then cause lymphocytes to divide and replicate, having stronger responses to antigens and having an immunological memory of an antigen. Furthermore, the rearrangement of the DNA coding for these receptors developed from a common jawed vertebral ancestor. It is thought that the transposon was inserted in gene coding for more primitive receptors. This allows for new antigens to evolve in emerging agents, so that the organism responds to evolving microbes or other threats.
  • Distinguish between the lymphatic and circulatory systems.
    • Unlike the circulatory system, the lymphatic system is composed of capillaries that absorb excess interstitial fluid, then take it back to the bloodstream. They also absorb fats by means of lacteals in the small intestine, which are lymphatic capillaries that transport the fats back into the bloodstream in the form of lipoproteins. Finally, the lymphoid organs and vessels produce lymphocytes to fight pathogens in the body.
  • Summarize the functions of the lymphatic system.
    • The main functions are to drain excess fluid from tissues and take it back to the cardiovascular system, help in immunity purposes, and help prevent backward flow. They also take excess fluid back to the bloodstream, along with fats and lymphocytes.
  • Describe the general appearance, location, and function of the lymphatic organs.
    • Red bone marrow: this is a spongy, partially solid, red tissue. This is where the hematopoietic stem cells divide to make all kinds of blood cells like lymphocytes. While red bone marrow is located in the bones of children, in adults it is in the skull bones, ribs, collar bone, pelvis, vertebrae, sternum, and proximal heads of the humerus and femur.
    • Thymus: this is the lymphoid organ in the thoracic cavity between the sternum and trachea. They help recognize any kind of foreign invader, and they can be activated to look for infection or inflammation, therefore serving to defend the body’s immune system.
    • Lymph nodes: these are small oval shaped organs that are found along the lymphatic vessels. They engulf foreign pathogens and can even engulf them. They are in the groin or armpits, and they help fight an infection or indicate if cancer is spreading.
    • Spleen: this is also oval shaped in the upper left part of the abdomen posterior to the stomach, and it filters or cleanses the blood. This will help get rid of old or ineffective blood cells, nd they the spleen helps identify and respond to foreign threats.
  • List three physical and three chemical barriers
    • Physical barriers: skin, and the mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive and urinary tracts
    • Chemical barriers: saliva, tears, milk, mucus (all of which contain lysozyme), while the stomach has acidic pH
  • Describe the four cardinal signs associated with an inflammatory response. How is this response beneficial?
    • The four signs are redness, heat, swelling, and pain. This response is beneficial because this causes WBCs to go from the bloodstream to the tissues that are damaged, which will then help with the healing process. The stimulation of WBC production and release facilitates healing and can help the body create its own natural anti-inflammatory processes. They can also initiate a fever, which has been proven by some data that a body can fight off invaders better when a fever is present.
  • Name five cell types involved in innate immunity, and the major functions of each.
    • Neutrophils: they phagocytize bacteria in tissues, especially since they can leave the bloodstream
    • Eosinophils: these attack animal parasites like tapeworms, which are too big to be phagocytized
    • Macrophages can help engulf pathogens and break them down, then go the the lymph nodes to stimulate T cells and immune responses
    • Dendritic cells: these have the same function as macrophages, but they are located primarily in the skin as opposed to all tissues
    • Natural killer (NK) cells kill cells infected by viruses and cancer cells, producing cytokines that help adapt the immune process
  • Summarize three specific functions of the complement system.
    • The complement system enhances the inflammatory response, increases phagocytosis, and form a membrane attack complex to produce holes in bacteria and viruses so that fluids and salts can enter.
  • Distinguish between antibody-mediated immunity and cell-mediated immunity, and list the types of cells involved in each.
    • Antibody mediated immunity is the defense of the boyd by B cells and it involves B cells, which become plasma cells or memory B cells. The antibodies are in the blood and lymph. The cell mediated immunity refers to the destruction or removal of pathogens or other threats by natural killer cells, macrophages, Tc cells, or other cells. The cells involved are helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, antigen presenting cells, and memory T cells.
  • Explain the diversity of antibodies.
    • There are many classes of antibodies called immunoglobulins, and their diversity is determined by the structure of the antibody’s constant region. Some can cross the placenta from the mother to the fetus, protecting the newborn. Others are found in breastmilk, tears, saliva, mucous membranes, and receptors on eosinophils and mast cells in the tissues.
  • Explain the difference between active and passive immunity, and list three examples of each.
    • Active immunity happens when someone produces one’s own immune response against an antigen, while passive immunity occurs when someone gets another person’s antibodies or immune cells.
    • Active examples: when you get a cold, the body creates its responses to cleanse the body. It can lso be induced when a person is well so they do not get sick in the future. These examples could be a flu vaccine or an HPV vaccine.
    • Passive examples: newborn receiving immunity from some diseases from the placental transfer or breastfeeding. Rabies, tetanus, botulism, and snake bites are often treated with passive immunity.
  • Explain the general type of abnormality that causes most primary immunodeficiencies.
    • Most are genetic, passed from the parents, and T cells and B cells could be lacking or not functioning appropriately, while in most people, by three months, untreated infants could die because of increased susceptibility to infections. X linked mutations or abnormalities can alter the development of B cells.
  • Describe the treatments for autoimmune diseases.
    • Because so little is known about where autoimmune diseases come from, few cures exist. Instead, immunosuppressive drugs help control the symptoms. These often have serious side effects, as is seen in excessive cortisone.
  • Define xenotransplanation.
    • This is when the organs or tissues of another animal are transplanted into a different species, as is when a pig liver is transplanted into a human liver (if possible).