Think about how your life has gone in relation to Erikson’s stages of development.
Think about important events and talk to family members to help you chronicle the major milestones of your life. What were some things that impacted your development in each of Erikson’s stages? For each stage you have completed up to now, do you believe that you have achieved mostly the positive outcome or mostly the negative outcome and why or why not?
· identify and name at least 4 specific Erikson stages as you discuss them (Name it like “trust vs. mistrust”, etc.). This is very important and loses big points if you neglect to do this!
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4 specific Erikson stages
1. INFANCY: BIRTH-18 MONTHS OLD
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust – Hope
During the first or second year of life, the major emphasis is on the mother and father’s nurturing ability and care for a child, especially in terms of visual contact and touch. The child will develop optimism, trust, confidence, and security if properly cared for and handled. If a child does not experience trust, he or she may develop insecurity, worthlessness, and general mistrust to the world.
2. TODDLER / EARLY CHILDHOOD YEARS: 18 MONTHS TO 3 YEARS
Autonomy vs. Shame – Will
The second stage occurs between 18 months and 3 years. At this point, the child has an opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as he or she learns new skills and right from wrong. The well-cared for child is sure of himself, carrying himself or herself with pride rather than shame. During this time of the “terrible twos”, defiance, temper tantrums, and stubbornness can also appear. Children tend to be vulnerable during this stage, sometimes feeling shame and and low self-esteem during an inability to learn certain skills.
3. PRESCHOOLER: 3 TO 5 YEARS
Initiative vs. Guilt – Purpose
During this period we experience a desire to copy the adults around us and take initiative in creating play situations. We make up stories with Barbie’s and Ken’s, toy phones and miniature cars, playing out roles in a trial universe, experimenting with the blueprint for what we believe it means to be an adult. We also begin to use that wonderful word for exploring the world—”WHY?”
While Erikson was influenced by Freud, he downplays biological sexuality in favor of the psychosocial features of conflict between child and parents. Nevertheless, he said that at this stage we usually become involved in the classic “Oedipal struggle” and resolve this struggle through “social role identification.” If we’re frustrated over natural desires and goals, we may easily experience guilt.
The most significant relationship is with the basic family.
4. SCHOOL AGE CHILD: 6 TO 12 YEARS
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